10 Teams That Have Not Won A College Football Championship in Over a Decade but Should

By: Chad Wilson
Twitter: @gridironstuds.com

College football is fun isn’t it?  The week to week battle to see who will outlast everyone to the end and play for the national championship is just soap operaish.  Well,  that’s kind of how it used to be,  not so much lately.  Articles like this one can get you labeled as a hater but I don’t care.  College football is one of those things I am passionate about but less so in recent years.  Call it the rapid changes that have eroded at the fabric of fan loyalty to the centralization of power to one conference and really one team.  Whatever it is,  it sure would be nice to see other programs crawl back into consciousness.

As we all know,  consciousness means either play for or win a national championship.  Over the last 12 years,  one team has won half the titles and we all know who that is.  Combine that with the fact that only four or five teams have really even had the chance to bite the apple and you can see where boredom may settle in for the college football fanbase at large.  This has left us to live in a fantasy world where we create hypotheticals via social media and like I will do in this blog article.

Having watched college football for the greater part of 40 years now,  I have seen a lot of teams come and go in the mainstream.  Some of them have left an unforgettable impression while others were pretty much ho hum.  With that in mind,  here is my list (in reverse order of course) of teams that have not won a championship in the last 10 years but should for the goodness of college football.

#10. Georgia

Not since true freshman running back Herschel Walker dazzled us with his powerful running style,  break away speed and leaps over the pile into the end zone have we been blessed to see the Dawgs raise the trophy.  Last year celebrated 40 years since the boys in Athens could allow their voices to reach max volume.  While they have made a little noise in recent years under Kirby Smart,  the hollering has been more in being able to furnish their house with 5-star recruits and less about hanging trophies on their mantle.  The Dawgs have been the butt of jokes because of their ringless nature.  Wouldn’t it be swell to watch them win one and meltdown in a sea of anti decorum on Twitter?  This season seems to provide one of their best opportunities of late.

#9. Michigan

The youngsters of the college football viewing audience world will wonder aloud if Michigan has ever won a college football national title.  Who could blame them,  most of them weren’t alive to see the rose in Charles Woodson’s mouth in 1997.  Hell,  many of them will faintly remember Woodson’s NFL career despite it occurring in three different decades.  Ohio St. has partied alone in the Big 10 for quite some time now.  It sure would be nice for the boys in blue to give the Buckeyes some media competition.  Besides,  only God in Heaven knows what Jim Harbaugh would do if he ends the drought for his alma mater.  He may buy out all of the Dickies in Walmarts nationwide.

#8. Penn St. 

One man and one man alone has led Penn St. to the ultimate in college football.  The late Joe Paterno,  high water pants and plain uniform excellence marked the 80’s and 90’s.  A tarnished legacy because of a wayward assistant coach has been the legend ever since.  Whether you are a fan of Penn St. or not,  you have to admit that having them get back into the mix and win one would be great for college football.  In this era of swag and style points,  a win by the guys dressed in Dick’s Sporting Goods football uniforms would give many something to hate on.  Imagine the chaos if something so plain became so rich!

#7. Oregon

Speaking of style points.  Who bedazzled themselves more than Oregon did in the early 2010’s?  From the 425 uniform combinations with chrome helmets to the ridiculous signs held up in between plays,  the Ducks were different.  For all that pizazz,  Oregon couldn’t quite put the ball in the net but they sure excited us trying.  They are less colorful these days (see Mario Cristobal going looney on a player that earned a taunting penalty last week) but they still carry a card.  The Pac-12 and Western United States football in general could use a pick me up and the Ducks getting bathing in a championship trophy would be soothing.

#6. Notre Dame

The Irish are the catholics you love to hate but you hate them less when they aren’t champions.  Think of the emotions that would rumble inside of you as watched the guys with the golden helmets and their coach with the rose colored cheeks sneering at you with big trophy in hand.  Wouldn’t it just piss you off?  Yeah,  that’s what we need.  Instead of us being mad every week over dismissed players for targeting we can stew for a whole offseason at Notre Dame being at the top of college football again.  In fact,  we could have them be our first ever four loss national champ seeing as though unless they’re .500,  someone important wants to put them in the College Football Playoff annually.  It would be awesome just to have people looking at gothic church structures across the country in disgust simply because the catholic football team is the best.

#5. Texas

Everything’s bigger in Texas including the growing amount of time it’s been since Vince Young danced into a pile of launched confetti in the back corner of the Rose Bowl end zone.  Since the night Vince became a legend and dispatched of the Trojan dynasty,  Texas has ridden the role of coaster.  They had a slight chance to block the Saban dynasty one night but Colt McCoy’s bum shoulder advanced what might have been the inevitable.  Texas has been branded with mediocrity for over a decade now serving up over cooked steaks of rampant disappointment.  Once again there’s a new face in town as the head coach but college football just has a better feel when Texas is threatening to win it all with their wealth of high school football talent.

#4. Oklahoma

Believe it or not,  Oklahoma has not won a title in 20 years.  Hard to believe isn’t it?  They have hoodwinked us with out of this world quarterbacking excellence and multiple college football playoff appearances but yeah,  nothing.  It sure would be nice if all of that horn honking would actually lead to an open lane for celebration eh Sooner fans?  I guess with Lincoln Riley in Norman you always have a shot.  However,  the move to SEC can be regarded as questionable for someone looking to grab the ultimate prize.  Or maybe not.  Putting a dominant year together in the NFL conference could streamline the other Crimson of the conference to NCAA paydirt.  We could trot Barry Switzer, Bob Stoops and the Bozz out in a cut off t-shirt to raise the trophy.

#3. Florida

Forget how you feel about the Gators at the moment (yes I’m talking to you Canes and Seminoles).  You have to admit that it was downright fun when Steve Spurrier was funnin and gunnin in the Swamp.  Beating Tennessee and then using snazzy quotes to let the humiliation of the loss linger for weeks was gold.  You can’t tell me that you didn’t like seeing the Gator brand advanced with the awesome talent level that was possessed during the Urban Meyer years.  Sure,  it gave your blood another reason to boil.  We need that high heat again.  The state of Florida is producing talent at a high rate but it’s benefitting all of the colleges that reside outside of the sunshine.  Imagine the turmoil within the state if Florida could reach the mountain top while the other two major programs are holding Twitter coaching searches.

#2. USC

Since Vince made  the Trojan wince,  it just hasn’t been the same in Los Angeles for the team that rideth upon a horse.  When Pete Carroll took his show to the Great Northwest,  he apparently took all the movie stars with him.  There’s nothing on the USC sidelines now but missed opportunity and despair.  It sure would be nice to see Marcus, Ronnie, Snoop and OJ (snicker) back on the SC sidelines again.  We all know there’s only one way that’s going to happen.  When the Trojans win a championship it’s a show.  It’s a show unlike anything we would see from Iowa, Kansas St. or Northwestern.  I think you catch my drift.  It’s just more fun when the Trojans have the gun.

#1. The U

Nobody did it better than the Hurricanes.  For every celebrity sighting on the Colosseum sidelines in Los Angeles,  there was a whole team walking off the plane looking like they raided an Army Navy Surplus.  For every dominant Alabama performance in the last decade plus there is an on field celebration by a Hurricane that would make a grandma clutch her King James version.  The establishment hated the Canes so much that they literally legislated them out of college football consciousness.  That level of hate and emotion could only serve to bring even more interest to the game of college football.  No doubt Miami were the trendsetters in the game.  If allowed to drink from the golden cup once more the Canes could restore the joyful feeling that only a first down hip thrust can illicit.  While it seems more like a pipe dream at the moment,  it would be an absolute nightmare for the powers that be if it did happen.  I’m all for seeing the hardened face rulemakers scrambling once again to stop the spread of 305 excellence.  Aren’t U?

 

Underrated Studs: Deville Dickerson – Lompoc, CA

By: Chad Wilson – Editor GridironStuds Blog
Twitter: @gridironstuds

Don’t kick the ball to Deville!  You’ve been warned.  If quickness and speed are the traits you are looking for then you have found them in this prospect.  Dickerson flashed in his junior campaign by running down players on defense and running by defenders on offenses.  This season he has added elite return man to his resume.

Three games into his senior season and Dickerson has six kick return TDs (4 punts, 2 kickoffs).  Both of the kickoff returns have been to open the game putting Lompoc’s opponents behind the 8-ball right off of the bat.  Dickerson may remind some of another Lompoc High School graduate by the name of Napoleon Kaufman.  Kaufman was also a tad undersized as a high schooler but was a total menace on the gridiron.  He would take his talents to the University of Washington and then to the Oakland Raiders.  Much like Kaufman,  Dickerson has the speed to strike from anywhere on the field.

Dickerson lists himself as a defensive back but I am not so sure that he isn’t an offensive weapon at the next level.  Lompoc certainly gets the most out of him by using him on offenses, defense and in the return game.  If there’s one thing he’s going to do,  it’s make a play.  Dickerson’s torrid pace to rewrite the kick return record books may hit a snag along the way as I am certain that teams are going to elect to stop kicking to him.  If and when they do,  you can bet that Dickerson will always be a threat to send the ball back where it came from.  He is definitely a high level talent that should make noise on the college football gridiron in years to come.  Idaho St., San Diego St. and William & Mary are his current offers with more certainly to arrive in the coming weeks.

Check out Deville Dickerson’s profile on the GridironStuds App – Click here.

Lazy Media, Herd Following Fans Creating Bubble Prospects

Like many college football fans out there,  I catch wind of a recruit through social channels occasionally.  When I do,  I am excited to dig deeper into the prospect to see what he’s working with,  gauge his skills and access his potential.  After all,  I run a whole recruiting business over here.  Not too long ago,  I decided to take a deep dive into a prospect that had been picking up steam for quite some time and was getting many an article written about him.  To my surprise but not to my shock,  there wasn’t much there and it’s a growing trend.

First off,  I am going to tell you in advance that I am not going to name the player and I am going to be very vague about things that could identify him.  I am not here to tear kids down and what I speak of in this article is not at all the fault of the player.  My readers can go about guessing who it is but I’ll never tell.  I have a couple of “sports reporting” related apps on my phone and I get bombarded with notifications.  I am not complaining but I will point out that with increasing quantity,  I am getting notifications related to what I call “simple foolery”.  That is a notification with a 10 second video of an athlete doing something crazy like working out or running or jumping.  It’s amazing when you see an athlete doing these things because like what else would an athlete be doing?  Please recognize the sarcasm in that.

I don’t know who we blame for this.  Was it Odell Beckham’s one hand catch that scarred media coverage on athletics forever?  Whatever the case may be,  the media frenzy to provide content to push out on their apps, blogs and social media accounts has detonated the senses of people who actually have knowledge of the sports for which they root.  As such,  “reporters” (term used loosely) have placed a premium on athletes that play the media game.  I guess this has always been the case.  Players in the past who were quotable or antic filled ala Jim McMahon, Brian Bosworth or Deion Sanders have seen themselves become celebrities.  However,  with the advent of 24 hour news cycles and social media,  this phenomenon is on steroids.

There was a time when these quotable,  antic filled athletes felt a duty to work hard to meet the hype.  There was a time when the reporters following the players made an effort to see if the players were indeed worthy of their top billing.   There was a time when the fans being exposed to the athletes demanded it.  Those times have evaporated like a stimulus check at a casino.  Today’s athlete feels no such pressure and why should they?  Lazy reporters no longer dig deep to access the quality of an athlete’s play.  The only metric is how many followers they have.  If he has followers then we’ll have followers when we talk about anything he does.  “Did you see him throw an accurate pass to a wide receiver in that workout!! Could he be the next Brady?” That’ll get us 25k likes at least.

Make enough social media or blog posts like that and combine it with enough push notifications to millions of fans’ phones and soon that player is all they know.  Is he actually good though?  What’s that have to do with anything,  people clicked the heart button.  I am not sure who’s leading who here.  Is it the fans’ frenzy over the ordinary that has propelled the media to cover it or is it the coverage of the media forcing the fans to consume it?  Whatever the case may be,  it is creating an athlete bubble.

More and more,  I am seeing mediocre players hyped into oblivion because they are 5 star with the camera.  Media outlets are so thirsty for content that they will fall in love with any athlete that gives it to them.  Our attention spans are so low now that we will accept all the 10 second bursts of content and convince ourselves that this gives us the total picture.  Fans will even accept one paragraph articles on a website or a one paragraph article spread over 10 pages for advertising purposes. With proper graphics,  soundtrack and camera angles,  eating a steak bowl at Chipotle can catapult a kid into the Top 100 for his recruiting class.  When the love flows in for moves like that,  it only stands to reason that the focus will shift from self improvement for the sport to leveling up on getting exposure.  If I can do very little and get seen a lot why waste my time pressing all that weight,  watching all that film and running all those sprints.  My camera guy and my untrained trainer trump my coaches.  After all,  coach doesn’t post me on his Twitter account everyday like SuperSportsFreakPigskin does.

The toothpaste is already out of the tube on this one so I don’t expect to see it stop.  I can scold the reporters but they don’t give a damn,  they are chasing a check and notoriety like the players are.  I can tell the fans to wake up but many of them have been pulled away from their other true life interests by the football media who courts their attention at every turn.  So I will make my plea to the athlete.  The trip up the ladder of fame is fun but when they are done hyping you,  if your performance can’t come close to expectations,  they will take even greater delight in sticking a nice little pin in your bubble and watching you pop.  Make sure there’s more inside your balloon than hot air.

Is the Portal Creating Mayhem in College Football?

By: Chad Wilson – Editor GridironStuds Blog
Twitter: @GridironStuds

College football is going through what I would call a reformation period.  I don’t think I can recall a time in my life in which so many changes have been made to the game in such a short space of time.  From rules to protect players (targeting) to the formation of a playoff system and the prospects of the athletes getting paid,  if you went into a coma in 2010 and woke up today,  you’d barely recognize the sport.  However,  few of these changes have garnered more attention over the last couple of years than the transfer portal.

Much of the early news about the portal was about what savvy college football coaches dipped into the portal to bling out their roster the best.  University of Miami coach Manny Diaz and Florida coach Dan Mullen were some notable coaches to hit the jackpot.  No doubt there have been some great transfer portal stories that the makers of the rule can hang their hat on.  Jalen Hurts’ move from Alabama to Oklahoma and into the Heisman Trophy race would be one of the tops on the list.  However,  as is the case with many rule changes,  there are winners and losers.  Of late,  it seems the losers are the bigger room in the transfer portal.

For every Jalen Hurts,  there seems to be 100 other bad decisions being made.  In reality,  Hurts was a graduate transfer from Alabama,  meaning he had completed his degree and made the move for his final season to the Sooners.  Even without the transfer portal,  Hurts would have been able to make the move that he made and likely prosper in the same way.  Often times,  transfer moves made later in a player’s career have a higher degree of success.  Typically,  the player making them has more maturity,  has spent more time in their initial program and as such has totally exhausted all avenues of reconciliation with that program before choosing to transfer.  Such is not the case now with an ever growing frequency.

The mindset for most recruits coming out of high school these days is to start and or play as soon as possible in college.  Recruits are on a three year plan as opposed to a four or five year plan.  Redshirting has been reduced to getting rejected by a potential prom date.  Not starting is a drink thrown in your face and playing sparingly as a freshman is like stepping on your Nikes in the club.  In the eyes of the 18 or 19 year old,  these are signs of disrespect by the offending program.  I get it,  college football players are looking at college basketball players becoming multi-millionaires at 19 and thinking,  why shouldn’t I hit my payday at 20 or 21?   The biggest problem with a lot of these changes is that what is publicized are the winners like Jalen Hurts but what is more prevalent are the losers.

The transfer portal has become a hotbed for athletes who quickly determine their chances at the school of their initial choice and look to jump back in the pool at the first sign of depth chart resistance.  We are living in a microwave society and as such when the results don’t come quick,  then something must be wrong with the institution in place.  It’s hard to get an actual number of athletes that are in the transfer portal but I am here to tell you that it’s over 1,500.

Not only has that huge number caused problems at the NCAA institutions,  it has also caused problems in the World of high school recruiting.  The NCAA decided that they would not make any adjustments to the rule that states a program can only sign a max of 25 recruits per cycle.  As a result,  there have been less scholarships available to high school football players.  When one program gets the benefit of two, three, four or even more athletes from the portal,  it means there are less spots available for a high school recruit.  Likewise,  a program that has lost a similar amount of players to the portal can not now make that up by signing additional prospects from the high school level.  This leaves a void in the recruiting process.

In addition to that,  more and more programs are seeking answers to their depth chart questions in the portal.  Teams have found it more advantageous to grab a young player from the portal who has had a taste of college football as opposed to taking a chance on a high school football player.  Texas State recently comprised their entire signing class with transfers. With that still,  many players remain stuck in the transfer portal looking for a new home.

Ultimately,  the transfer portal is serving the fickle mindset of youngsters.  They want instant results and success.  When it does not happen they move quickly to seek a better,  easier situation. What they end up finding is a worse situation typically at a lower level or as a walk on.  What has been happening also is transferring becomes contagious.  Once you make that first transfer,  leaving the next school becomes easy and transferring twice is starting to rise.

Some prospects find themselves sliding down the college football pole either by ending up at a less desirable destination or unable to find another destination at all.  This is leading to guys quitting football and school all together.  The fact still remains that only 1% are going to make it to the professional level.  When a young athlete is given the opportunity to obtain a higher education worth $250k and even more when you consider future earnings,  it’s a shame when that goes to waste.

Now more than ever,  it is important that prospects make the right choice the first time (coming out of high school) and remember the reasons they made that choice when things don’t go exactly as planned.  Sure,  the prospects are being recruited by people and it gets difficult not to get attached to that.  However,  you have to muster the discipline to recognize that you need to be sold on the institution over everything.  The people come and go but the universities stay where they are.  Take stock of the history of the school as it relates to academics and athletics,  specifically football.  Ask yourself how sure you are that you can  still get what you want from the program if everyone there now suddenly left tomorrow.  Keep in mind the institution that you bought into when some of your personal relationships with the people take a turn to the left. Do all that you can to repair or manage the situation so that you can get what you need from the program.  After carefully exhausting all avenues and taking a solid amount of time doing so,  the answer may still be to leave.  If that’s the case then you can be the next one to cram on the transfer portal bus traveling to parts unknown.

Ranking the Top Five 2023 Pro Style Passers

By: Chad Wilson – GridironStuds Blog
Twitter: @GridironStuds

247 Sports recently cranked out their 247 top prospects for the Class of 2023 and while there’s always a ton of things to analyze,  I thought I take a quick look at the Top Five signal callers in their pro style passer category.  In this article,  I am going to give you my Top 5 of their Top 5.  Sounds like something from a comedy skit I know but I don’t entirely agree with their order so I thought I’d give you mine based on what I see.  Enjoy the order,  the notes and the discussion.

(5) Nicholaus Iamaleava  – 247 Rank 4th

Iamaleava is probably the fastest rising and improving on this list.  The growth from freshman to sophomore year in his game is quite noticeable.  He’s still thin but he’s added some pretty good size on and has room for much more.  I love how he has progressed into being a reader of defenses.  This will help him at the next level.  At one point he was just a one read kind of quarterback and that was most likely by design.  With athleticism being more and more valued at the QB position these days,  he presents as athletic enough.  He’s not a burner which you would hardly expect from a 6’5″ QB still growing into this body but he does well enough to shift in the pocket and gain yardage when nothing is there.  He also shows some charisma which is an underrated aspect to quarterbacking.

(4) Dante Moore – 247 Rank 3rd

The biggest thing I like about Moore is that he’s not afraid to make the tough throws.  Whereas most high school quarterbacks prefer to throw once they see their target open,  Moore is willing to throw into traffic and anticipate throws.  This is interesting because a majority of what you see him do on film are throws to the first read.  So what I am gathering here is he really trusts the play,  the coach and the receivers. He’s also good at throwing on the run which is a more valued asset these days even for “pro style” passers.  He gets good points for accuracy too.

(3) Arch Manning – 247 Rank 1st 

Oh sure this is going to look like I am hating but what I realize here is that there is some extra juice on this prospect because of the well recognized last name.  By no means does that mean that I don’t think he’s good.  He’s definitely a polished prospect but at this moment,  I don’t think he presents the physical tools of some of the other top prospects in this class.  What Manning does do better than the others is process the X’s and O’s.  He reads defenses as you would expect he would and he executes the physical intangible things of the position. He does not show a live arm in comparison to others nor is particularly mobile.  I don’t love his throwing on the run or the competition he is playing against.  Seeing him compete eventually in something like The Opening or in a game against an out of state powerhouse would be telling.  I want to see how he operates when the windows and margin for error is small.  Where Arch decides to go to school will mean everything.  The system must fit him.

(2) Malachi Nelson – 247 Rank 2nd

Nelson is the only prospect that I think is where he is supposed to be ranking wise.  I could make a case for him being first.  There is a completeness to his game.  He has a live arm.  He has good size.  He’s mobile in the pocket and can hurt you when he leaves the pocket to run.  He can make the tight throws because he’s accurate along with powerful pushing the ball downfield.  What gives me pause on him is the amount of first read throws.  This could be by design or it could be a a thing that you hope he can progress from at the next level.  Whether or not a prospect can do that is always a mystery.  If he can then the sky is the limit.

(1) Dylan Lonergan – 247 Rank 5th

Call me crazy or just wanting to shake things up but I like this kid.  Like Nelson,  I see a completeness to his game.  First,  he has a great arm.  With that he also understands that not every throw needs to be at 100 mph.  He shows on film the ability to make different kinds of throws.  He knows when to fire it up and when to take something off.  He has good ball placement on his throws.  He is also decisive in the pocket and has good pocket awareness.  He shows an ability to make quick decisions.  Lonegran is also physically strong.  He will toss off sack attempts or run over a defender for first down yardage.  What also gave him the nod over Nelson was him showing the ability to read defenses,  manipulate defenders and make throws to a second or even third read.

There’s much time left until these recruits put ink to paper.  Much will be learned about them over two more football seasons and summer offseasons.  Some will progress more than others but on this day,  this is how I see these prospects.  Manning’s pedigree probably makes him a safer bet than the others but I am not one to totally rely on that.  There are some physically gifted specimen here that might totally take off when they get coaching at the next level.

Gators CB2 Spot Seems to Be Unsettled

By: Chad Wilson – GridironStuds Blog
Twitter: @gridironstuds

We all know that the Florida Gators 2020 football season had a Jekyll and Hyde feel to it.  On one side there was an offense that was record break and high achieving.  On the other side,  there was a defense that had the looks of a stock portfolio that was losing money during a bull market.  Much of the attention on the underperformance fell on the secondary which will now have to replace three members in 2021.

Of focus in this post is the cornerback spot across from all conference member Kaiir Elam.  As departed cornerback Marco Wilson took much heat during the season for the lackluster secondary performance,  the noise from Gator twitter and some media members was increased playing time for Jaydon Hill.  This came despite Hill playing significant crunch time minutes while rotating in the line up for both Wilson and Elam.  As the season developed and Wilson became the lightning rod,  calls were made for Hill to outright replace Wilson as a starter.  Such is the Twitter mob and the bloggers that are fueled by them.

As Wilson has departed and the open role seeming ready to be filled by Hill,  the offseason has clouded that notion.  For all their cries for Hill to supplant Wilson in the line up,  his move into that role with Wilson now moved on the NFL has seemed to have had sand kicked on it.  I,  for one,  am surprised by this.  How do we go from “put Hill in!” to being excited about every cornerback that entered the transfer portal this offseason?  How did we go from “he deserves more playing time” to “Jason Marshall is going to be an impact player along side Kaiir Elam in 2021”?  Hello,  Jaydon Hill is still on the roster.  Is he injured? I missed that story if he was.

Fans, media and some times coaches like to run through talent like coordinators run through dry erase markers.  They resemble unsatisfied gold diggers at the mall with their billionaire boyfriend’s platinum American Express card.  In other words,  they love new “stuff” and that’s not the word I wanted to use.  I don’t know what the thought process is for the coaching staff.  I am not privy to those conversations nor do I want to be.  However,  so far as the media and fanbase goes,  it seems they are on their train again.

I don’t know if Jason Marshall is ready to play or start.  Perhaps he is.  I don’t know if new transfer Jadarrius Perkins from Missouri is that guy for the spot on the other side of the field.   However,  I do know this,  Gator fans,  Gator media,  the offseason is getting long and we still have a lot of time left.  Jaydon Hill was the apple of  people’s eye in 2020.  Don’t let his insides turn brown now.  He shouldn’t have to feel cast aside and forgotten for no reason.  Whatever you saw in him a year ago is still there and most likely improved.  He took all those reps for something.  Let’s give that guy a chance to see what it all was for.  If the coaches decide it’s not good enough then write your stories.

At this point it seems that it there are too many blogs, too many opinions and far too much speculation.  Go hit your lakes, oceans and mountain trips.  Take a break from all of the speculation and let these players go through the process free of your fantasy football dreams laid out on digital currency.